Scientific Research

Scientific research has been carried out on the influence of climate changes such as temperature, precipitation and trace gases (CO2, …) on viticultural yield, biomass, phenology including grape harvest dates. The compilation below lists a small selection of research results.

Keeling Curve – long-term CO2 measurement at Mauna Loa / Hawaii

The Keeling Curve is a daily record of global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration maintained by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego. The CO2 measurement is performed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii.

Source: Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Viticulture and climate change

Even if many winegrowers can be happy about great vintages, climate change with its weather extremes such as heat, drought, heavy rain and increased risk of late frost poses new challenges for winegrowing. Plant stress and the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere also demand new approaches from winegrowers: different grape varieties, different cultivation, different timing.  “The hot summers have stayed to stay,” says Claudia Kammann, climate professor at the renowned University of Applied Sciences for Viticulture in Geisenheim. Together with winegrowers, the university’s researchers are testing the consequences for viticulture. What are the grape varieties of the future? What must winegrowers do to benefit from climate change in the long term?

Source © hessenreporter
Photo © hr

Impacts of 1.5°C of Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems

This IPCC report describes the effects and risks of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions (including CO2) in relation to the associated climate change and our ecosystem (humans, animals, plants, …). It shows that the efforts to reduce GHG emissions are not sufficient to reach the climate goal of +1.5ºC warming in 2050. Computer simulations of climate change show how much CO2 emissions must be reduced in the coming years in order to reach the target of +1.5ºC warming.

Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2019
Title: Global warming of 1.5°C

664 years time series for grape harvest dates in Burgundy, France

Long-term time series of grape harvest dates (GHD) from 1354 to 2018 shows that average GHD was around 28.September for the time period 1354 to 1987. During the following 30 years (until 2018) with rapid warming, GHD has shifted 13 days earlier to mid September.

Authors: Labbe T.,, 2019
Title: The longest homogeneous series of grape harvest dates, Beaune 1354–2018, and its significance for the understanding of past and present climate.


Viticulture is a key socio-economic sector in Europe. Owing to the strong sensitivity of grapevines to atmospheric factors, climate change may represent an important challenge for this sector. This study analyses viticultural suitability, yield, phenology, and water and nitrogen stress indices in Europe, for present climates (1980–2005) and future (2041-2070) climate change scenarios.

Authors: Fraga, H., 2016
Title: Modelling climate change impacts on viticultural yield, phenology and stress conditions in Europe.

Effect of increased CO2 concentrations on viticulture investigated by field experiment FACE in Geisenheim, Germany

The influence of increased CO2 concentration (as forecast for the year 2050) is being investigated at Geisenheim University under field conditions as part of the FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) experiment. The increased CO2 concentrations are applied to Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties directly in the vineyard.

Photo © Marcus Wefers